Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension(Skimming and Scanning)(15minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer sheet 1. For questions 1-7,choose the best answer from the four choices marked A)，B)，C）and D). For questions 8-10,complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
The revolution that Steve Jobs led is only just beginning
When it came to putting on a show, nobody else in the computer industry, or any other industry for that matter, could match Steve Jobs. His product launches, at which he would stand alone on a black stage and produce as if by magic an "incredible" new electronic gadget (小器皿) in front of an amazed crowd, were the performances of a master showman. All computers do is fetch and cet4v.com, he once explained, but do it fast enough and "the results appear to be magic". Mr Jobs, who died recently aged 56, spent his life packaging that magic into elegantly designed, easy-to-use products.
The reaction to his death, with people leaving candles and flowers outside Apple stores and politicians singing praises on the internet, is proof that Mr Jobs had become something much more significant than just a clever money-maker. He stood out in three ways-as a technologist, as a corporate (公司的) leader and as somebody who was able to make people love what had previously been impersonal, functional gadgets. Strangely, it is this last quality that may have the deepest effect on the way people live. The era of personal technology is in many ways just beginning.
As a technologist, Mr Jobs was different because he was not an engineer-and that was his great strength. Instead he was keenly interested in product design and aesthetics (美学), and in making advanced technology simple to use. He repeatedly took an existing but half-formed idea-the mouse-driven computer, the digital music player, the smartphone, the tablet computer (平板电脑)-and showed the rest of the industry how to do it properly. Rival firms competed with each other to follow where he led. In the process he brought about great changes in computing, music, telecoms and the news business that were painful for existing firms but welcomed by millions of consumers.
Within the wider business world, a man who liked to see himself as a hippy(嬉皮士), permanently in revolt against big companies, ended up being hailed by many of those corporate giants as one of the greatest chief executives of his time. That was partly due to his talents: showmanship, strategic vision, an astonishing attention to detail and a dictatorial management style which many bosses must have envied. But most of all it was the extraordinary trajectory (轨迹) of his life. His fall from grace in the 1980s, followed by his return to Apple in 1996 after a period in the wilderness, is an inspiration to any businessperson whose career has taken a turn for the worse. The way in which Mr Jobs revived the failing company he had co-founded and turned it into the world's biggest tech firm (bigger even than Bill Gates's Microsoft, the company that had outsmarted Apple so dramatically in the 1980s), sounds like something from a cet4v.com.
But what was perhaps most astonishing about Mr Jobs was the absolute loyalty he managed to inspire in customers. Many Apple users feel themselves to be part of a community, with Mr Jobs as its leader. And there was indeed a personal link. Apple's products were designed to accord with the boss's tastes and to meet his extremely high standards. Every iPhone or MacBook has his fingerprints all over it. His great achievement was to combine an emotional spark with computer technology, and make the resulting product feel personal. And that is what put Mr Jobs on the right side of history, as technological innovation (创新) has moved into consumer electronics over the past decade.
As our special report in this issue (printed before Mr Jobs's death) explains, innovation used to spill over from military and corporate laboratories to the consumer market, but lately this process has gone into reverse. Many people's homes now have more powerful, and more flexible, devices than their offices do; consumer gadgets and online services are smarter and easier to use than most companies' systems. Familiar consumer products are being adopted by businesses, government and the armed forces. Companies are employing in-house versions of Facebook and creating their own "app stores" to deliver software to employees. Doctors use tablet computers for their work in hospitals. Meanwhile, the number of consumers hungry for such gadgets continues to swell. Apple's products are now being snapped up in Delhi and Dalian just as in Dublin and Dallas.
Mr Jobs had a reputation as a control freak (怪人), and his critics complained that the products and systems he designed were closed and inflexible, in the name of greater ease of use. Yet he also empowered millions of people by giving them access to cutting-edge technology. His insistence on putting users first, and focusing on elegance and simplicity, has become deep-rooted in his own company, and is spreading to rival firms too. It is no longer just at Apple that designers ask: "What would Steve Jobs do?"
The gap between Apple and other tech firms is now likely to narrow. This week's announcement of a new iPhone by a management team led by Tim Cook, who replaced Mr Jobs as chief executive in August, was generally regarded as competent but uninspiring. Without Mr Jobs to shower his star dust on the event, it felt like just another product launch from just another technology firm. At the recent unveiling of a tablet computer by Jeff Bezos of Amazon, whose company is doing the best job of following Apple's lead in combining hardware, software, content and services in an easy-to-use bundle, there were several attacks at Apple. But by doing his best to imitate Mr Jobs, Mr Bezos also flattered(抬举) him. With Mr Jobs gone, Apple is just one of many technology firms trying to arouse his uncontrollable spirit in new products.
Mr Jobs was said by an engineer in the early years of Apple to emit a "reality distortion (扭曲) field", such were his powers of persuasion. But in the end he created a reality of his own, channelling the magic of computing into products that reshaped entire industries. The man who said in his youth that he wanted to "put a ding in the universe" cet4v.com.
1. We learn from the first paragraph that nobody could match Steve Jobs in _________.
A) intelligence B) showmanship C) magic power D) persuasion skills
2. What did Steve Jobs do that most deeply affected people's way of life?
A) He invented lots of functional gadgets.
B) He kept improving computer technology.
C) He started the era of personal technology.
D) He established a new style of leadership.
3. Where did Mr Jobs's great strength lie?
A) His profound insight about consumers' needs in general.
B) His keen interest in designing elegant and user-friendly gadgets.
C) His firm determination to win in the competition against his rivals.
D) His rich knowledge as a computer scientist and electronic engineer.
4. Many corporate giants saw Steve Jobs as _________.
A) one of the greatest chief executives of his time
B) a dictator in the contemporary business world
C) an unbeatable rival in the computer industry
D) the most admirable hippy in today's world
5. For those who have suffered failures in business, Steve Jobs's life experience serves as _________.
A) a symbol B) a standard C) an ideal D) an inspiration
6. What was the most astonishing part of Mr Jobs's success?
A) He turned a failing company into a profitable business.
B) He set up personal links with many of his customers.
C) He commanded absolute loyalty from Apple users.
D) He left his fingerprints all over Apple products.
7. What is mentioned in this issue's special report about innovation nowadays?
A) It benefits civilians more than the military.
B) New products are first used in the military.
C) Many new ideas first appear on the internet.
D) It originates in the consumer market.
8. In spite of the user-friendliness of Apple products, critics complained that they were _________.
9. Amazon, by having hardware, software, content and services ___________ in an easy-to-use bundle, did the best job in following Apple's lead.
10. By channelling the magic of computing into products, Steve Jobs had succeeded in . ___________.
Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension(Reading in depth)(25minntes)
Questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage.
French fries, washed down with a pint of soda, are a favorite part of fast-food lunches and dinners for millions of American youngsters. But -47-- a cue from health experts, a group of 19 restaurant companies are pledging to offer more-healthful menu options for children at a time when --48-- is the role of fast food in childhood obesity(肥胖症).
Burger King, the nation's second-largest fast food chain, for instance, will --49-- automatically including French fries and soda in its kids' meals starting this month, although they will still be --50--. Instead, the company said Tuesday, its employees will ask parents whether they --51-- such options as milk or sliced apples before assembling the meals. "We're asking the customers to --52-- what they want," said Craig Prusher, the chain's vice president of government relations. Other participating chains, with a --53-- of menu options, including Denny's, Chili's, Friendly's and Chevy's.
As part of the Kids Live Well campaign-expected to be announced --54-- Wednesday-participating restaurants must promise to offer at least one children's meal that has fewer than 600 calories(卡路里), no soft drinks and at least two --55-- from the following food groups: fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins or low-fat dairy. Among other requirements, they must offer a side dish that meets similar --56--, with fewer than 200 calories and less than 35%of its calories from sugar.
A) adapt I) prefer E) criteria M) stop
B) available J) recommending F) items N) taking
C) begin K) species G) nationwide O) variety
D) concern L) specify H) possible
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
As you are probably aware, the latest job markets news isn't good: Unemployment is still more than 9 percent, and new job growth has fallen close to zero. That's bad for the economy, of course. And it may be especially discouraging if you happen to be looking for a job or hoping to change careers right now. But it actually shouldn't matter to you nearly as much as you think.
That's because job growth numbers don't matter to job hunters as much as job turnover (人员更替) data. After all, existing jobs open up every day due to promotions, resignations, terminations(解雇), and retirements. (Yes, people are retiring even in this economy.) In both good times and bad, turnover creates more openings than economic growth does. Even in June of 2007, when the economy was still moving ahead, job growth was only 132,000, while turnover was 4.7 million!
And as it turns out, even today - with job growth near zero - over 4 million job hunters are being hired every month.
I don't mean to imply that overall job growth doesn't have an impact on one's ability to land a job. It's true that if total employment were higher, it would mean more jobs for all of us to choose from (and compete for). And it's true that there are currently more people applying for each available job opening, regardless of whether it's a new one or not.
But what often distinguishes those who land jobs from those who don't is their ability to stay motivated. They're willing to do the hard work of identifying their valuable skills; be creative about where and how to look; learn how to present themselves to potential employers; and keep going, even after repeated rejections. The Bureau of Labor Statistics data shows that 2.7 million people who wanted and were available for work hadn't looked within the last four weeks and were no longer even classified as unemployed.
So don't let the headlines fool you into giving up. Four million people get hired every month in the U.S. You can be one of them.
57. The author tends to believe that high unemployment rate ______.
A) deprives many people of job opportunities
B) prevents many people from changing careers
C) should not stop people from looking for a job
D) does not mean the U.S. economy is worsening
58. Where do most job openings come from?
A) Job growth.
B) Job turnover.
C) Improved economy.
D) Business expansion.
59. What does the author say about overall job growth?
A) It doesn't have much effect on individual job seekers.
B) It increases people's confidence in the economy.
C) It gives a ray of hope to the unemployed.
D) It doesn't mean greater job security for the employed.
60. What is the key to landing a job according cet4v.com?
61. What do we learn from the passage about the unemployment figures in the U.S.?
A) They clearly indicate how healthy the economy is.
B) They provide the public with the latest information.
C) They warn of the structural problems in the economy.
D) They exclude those who have stopped looking for a job.
Questions 62 to 66 are based on the following passage.
Our risk of cancer rises dramatically as we age. So it makes sense that the elderly should be routinely screened for new tumors - or doesn't it?
While such vigilant(警觉的)tracking of cancer is a good thing in general, researchers are increasingly questioning whether all of this testing is necessary for the elderly. With the percentage of people over age 65 expected to nearly double by 2050, it's important to weigh the health benefits of screening against the risks and costs of routine testing.
In many cases, screening can lead to surgeries to remove cancer, while the cancers themselves may be slow-growing and may not pose serious health problems in patients' remaining years. But the message that everyone must screen for cancer has become so deep-rooted that when health care experts recommended that women under 50 and over 74 stop screening for breast cancer, it caused a riotous reaction among doctors, patients and advocacy groups.
It's hard to uproot deeply held beliefs about cancer screening with scientific data. Certainly, there are people over age 75 who have had cancers detected by routine screening, and gained several extra years of life because of treatment. And clearly, people over age 75 who have other risk factors for cancer, such as a family history or prior personal experience with the disease, should continue to get screened regularly. But for the remainder, the risk of cancer, while increased at the end of life, must be balanced with other factors like remaining life expectancy(预期寿命).
A recent study suggests that doctors start to make more objective decisions about who will truly benefit from screening- especially considering the explosion of the elderly that will soon swell our population.
It's not an easy calculation to make, but one that makes sense for all patients. Dr. Otis Brawley said, "Many doctors are ordering screening tests purely to cover themselves. We need to think about the rational use of health care."
That means making some difficult decisions with elderly patients, and going against the misguided belief that when it comes to health care, more is always better.
62. Why do doctors recommend routine cancer screening for elderly people?
A) It is believed to contribute to long life.
B) It is part of their health care package.
C) The elderly are more sensitive about their health.
D) The elderly are in greater danger of tumor growth.
63. How do some researchers now look at routine cancer screening for the elderly?
A) It adds too much to their medical bills.
B) It helps increase their life expectancy.
C) They are doubtful about its necessity.
D) They think it does more harm than good.
64. What is the conventional view about women screening for breast cancer?
A) It applies to women over 50.
B) It is a must for adult women.
C) It is optional for young women.
D) It doesn't apply to women over 74.
65. Why do many doctors prescribe routine screening for cancer?
A) They want to protect themselves against medical disputes.
B) They want to take advantage of the medical care system.
C) They want data for medical research.
D) They want their patients to suffer less.
66. What does the author say is the general view cet4v.com?
A) The more, the better.
B) Prevention is better than cure.
C) Better early than late.
D) Better care, longer life.
Part V Cloze(15 minutes)
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A),B),C) and D)on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Try to imagine what it is like to live without electricity. It is boring, __67__ one thing-no television, no MP3 player, no video games. And you feel __68__ and disconnected as well-no computer, no Internet, no mobile phone. You can read books, of course-__69__ at night you won't have light, other than the flicker(闪烁) of firewood. And about that firewood-you or someone in your family had to __70__ it during the day, taking you away from more __71__ work or schooling, and in some parts of the world, exposing you __72__ danger. That same firewood is used to cook dinner, __73__ smoke that can turn the air inside your home far more __74__ than that breathed in an industrial city. You may lack access to modern drugs __75__ the nearest hospital docs not have continuous __76__ to keep the medicine refrigerated. You are __77__ poor-and the lack of electricity helps to __78__ that you'll stay that way.
That is life for the 1.3 billion people around the __79__ who lack access to the grid (电网). It is a __80__ problem of the developing world and the countryside-more than 95% of __81__ without electricity are either in sub-Saharan Africa or developing Asia, and 84% live in rural areas. __82__ it hasn't gotten the attention that __83__ problems like HIV/AIDS and water shortage have __84__ in recent years, lack of power remains a major __85__ to any progress in the world's development.
"Lacking access to electricity __86__ health, well-being and income," says Fatih Birol, the chief economist of the International Energy Agency. "It's a problem the world has to cet4v.com."
1. B showmanship
细节题。这道题的答案对应原文第一句话，从putting on a show 可以推出showmanship。
when it came to putting on a show, nobody else in the computer industry, or any other industry for that matter, could match Steve Jobs.题干与原文的匹配度比较高，仔细阅读不难得出选择是B
2. A He invented lots of functional gadgets.
细节题。原文第2段第2句话提到了乔布斯突出的三个方面，第三句话明确指出最后一个方面，也就是他在functional gadgets 上的贡献对人们的生活影响最大，对比第二题的选项，应选A
He stood out in three ways—as a technologist, as a corporate leader and as somebody who was able to make people love what had previously been impersonal, functional gadgets. Strangely, it is this last quality that may have the deepest effect on the way people live.
3. B His keen interest in designing elegant and user-friendly gadgets.
细节题。答案在第三段第二句，“obsessed with product design and aesthetics, and with making advanced technology simple to use”。讲到乔布斯痴迷于产品的设计和美学上，以及使高科技简单易用。所以选B
As a technologist, Mr Jobs was different because he was not an engineer—and that was his great strength. Instead he was obsessed with product design and aesthetics, and with making advanced technology simple to use.
4. A One of the greatest chief executives of his time.
细节题。答案在第4段第一句话的后半句“many of those corporate giants as one of the greatest chief executives of his time.”所以选A，其他的选项均不正确。
Within the wider business world, a man who liked to see himself as a hippy, permanently in revolt against big companies, ended up being hailed by many of those corporate giants as one of the greatest chief executives of his time.
5. D an inspiration
细节题。答案在第四段第三句话。“is an inspiration to any businessperson”。所以选D
His fall from grace in the 1980s, followed by his return to Apple in 1996 after a period in the wilderness, is an inspiration to any businessperson whose career has taken a turn for the worse.‘
6. C He commanded absolute loyalty from Apple users.
细节题。由关键词fanatical loyalty 定位到低段第一句话。所以乔布斯成功最令人震惊的地方在于它获得了苹果用户的绝对忠诚。选C
But what was perhaps most astonishing about Mr Jobs was the fanatical loyalty he managed to inspire in customers.
7. D It originates in the consumer market.
As our special report in this week's issue (printed before Mr Jobs's death) explains, innovation used to spill over from military and corporate laboratories to the consumer market, but lately this process has gone into reverse. Many people's homes now have more powerful, and more flexible, devices than their offices do; consumer gizmos and online services are smarter and easier to use than most companies' systems.过去创新是从部队和公司实验室再拓展到消费者市场，现在的情况是反过来。所以选D
8. closed and inflexible
细节题。由关键词 “critics complained”定位到第七段第一句，可知空格处应填写“closed and inflexible”。
Mr Jobs had a reputation as a control freak, and his critics complained that the products and systems he designed were closed and inflexible, in the name of greater ease of use.
At the recent unveiling of a tablet computer by Jeff Bezos of Amazon, whose company is doing the best job of following Apple's lead in combining hardware, software, content and services in an easy-to-use bundle,
10. reshaping entire industries
细节题，由关键词the magic of computing定位到原文最后一段， 空格处填reshaping entire industries.
But in the end he conjured up a reality of his own, channelling the magic of computing into products that reshaped entire industries.
47.N take a cue from 固定搭配，表示按…的指点行事。
49.M 因为上一段刚刚提到快餐引起儿童肥胖的问题获得了越来越多的重视，第2段顺承上面的内容，讲到汉堡王采取的相应措施：将从本月起停止提供儿童快餐里的炸薯条和苏打汽水.所以填stop 。
51. 这句话涉及到一个比较，whether...or, 选项中只有prefer一个课用于比较，所以空格处填prefer.
52. 这是紧接着上一句的， 上面刚刚讲到问顾客是选择套餐时是更喜欢选牛奶还是苹果片，这是一种将顾客的需求具体化，所以填specify。
53. a variety of 固定搭配，各种各样的。 在这句话中是指其他参与将为美国儿童提供更健康的事物的快餐店，也提供各种各样的菜单选择。
54. 结合上下文可知，(Kid Live Well)“让孩子们生活的更好”运动应该是全国范围内展开的一场大型运动，所以填nationwide。
55 通过第三段第一句话的后半句可以看出， 儿童的每顿饭中要包含冒号之后部分的食物中的至少两项，所以55空填item ，指的是后面的选项。
56. 前面提到的食物都是低脂、第卡路里的健康食物，最后一句中提到在其他的要求中，餐馆提供的附加菜必须满足同样的要求, 所以填criteria
57. The author tends to believe that high unemployment rate ______?
答案：C. should not stop people from looking for a job.
解析：本题重点考察作者观点。题干问在作者看来，高失业率怎么样？锁定原文第一段，虽然第一段中的bad for the economy，discouraging，change careers等字眼跟选项ABD当中的词汇很类似，但是要注意的是，真正表达作者观点的是第一段最后一句But it actually shouldn’t matter to you nearly as much as you think。其实高失业率跟你没太大关系。包括原文最后一段第一句“So don’t let the headlines fool you into giving up.”所以，综上所述，它不该给你找工作带来阻碍，引申意思就是该怎么办就怎么办，不要在意官方统计的高失业率。
58. Where do most job openings come from?
答案：B. Job turnover
解析：本题属于细节考查题。题干问大部分的职位空缺来自于哪里？根据四个选项，可以用排除法将business expansion排除，因为原文并未提及。再剩下的三个选项中，根据原文第二段的第一句job growth numbers don’t matter to job hunters as much asjob turnover data以及turnovercreates more openings than economic growth does.可以确定人员更替（turnover）提供了更多的职位空缺，因此答案为Job turnover。
59. What does the author say about overall job growth?
答案：A. It doesn’t have much effect on individual job seekers.
解析：本题继续考察作者观点。题干问作者对于整体就业增长（overall job growth）的态度是怎样的，可以定位到原文倒数第三段，关键是第一句：I don’t mean to imply that overall job growth doesn’t have an impact on one’s ability to land a job. 此处用到双重否定，“我并不是说整体就业增长对一个人找工作没有丝毫影响”，也就是说“有一定影响，但是没有那么大”所以答案是A，而BCD选项的confidence，hope，job security原文并未提及。
60. What is the key to landing a job according to the author?
解析：本题属于细节考查题。定位原文倒数第二段第一句But what often distinguishes those who land jobs from those who don’t is their ability to stay motivated. 关键词是stay motivated
61. What do we learn from the passage about the unemployment figures in the US?
答案：D. They exclude those who have stopped looking for a job.
解析：本题属于细节考查题。根据倒数第二段的最后一句The Bureau of Labor Statistics data shows that 2.7 million people who wanted and were available for work hadn’t looked within the last four weeks and were no longer even classified as unemployed.可知答案选D，那一部分人已经被排除掉了，所以失业率这个数据是有水分的。
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